Turkish military operation causes controversy, division in Iraq | News

Baghdad, Iraq – Turkey’s latest military operation within the Kurdish area of northern Iraq started early final week, with Ankara launching an air and floor offensive concentrating on the Kurdistan Staff’ Occasion (PKK) in pockets of Duhok province on April 18.

These operations in opposition to the PKK, an armed group preventing for the autonomy of Turkey’s southeast and thought of a terrorist organisation by Ankara, have grow to be a daily prevalence over current years. Nevertheless, they’re rising extra controversial in Iraq, and never simply in areas administered by the Kurdistan Regional Authorities (KRG).

“This operation is mainly making an attempt to intervene and set up networks of statement, monitoring, and bases,” Sardar Aziz, an analyst and former adviser to the KRG parliament, instructed Al Jazeera. “This time Turkey is planning to remain.”

Solely days earlier than Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan ordered the launch of the operation, dubbed Claw-Lock, he met with the KRG Prime Minister Masrour Barzani, an obvious sign that the KRG was supportive, to a sure extent, of the operation. Erdogan has additionally mentioned that the Iraqi authorities cooperated with the operation.

But the Iraqi central authorities not solely refuted Erdogan’s declare, but in addition strongly condemned Ankara’s operation. Baghdad has additionally summoned the Turkish ambassador to register its opposition.

“The Turkish aspect is finishing up steady violations that aren’t based mostly on any authorized foundation or settlement between the 2 international locations … they invoke Article 51 of the United Nations Constitution for self-defence, and this can’t be carried out with out official Iraqi approval,” Iraqi overseas ministry spokesperson Ahmed al-Sahaf mentioned.

Turkey says that operations in opposition to the PKK in northern Iraq are essential to cease the group from finishing up additional attacks in Turkey.

Regardless of Ankara’s declare that it had obtained assist from each Erbil and Baghdad, it seems to be fairly clear that there’s a divide inside Iraq.

“The truth that President Erdogan talked about this operation occurred efficiently in cooperation with the Iraqi authorities, regardless of the Iraqi overseas ministry condemning the operation and summoning the Turkish ambassador, reveals to you the dysfunction of Iraqi overseas coverage,” mentioned Hamzeh Hadad, a political analyst targeted on Iraq.

“The KRG says one factor and the Iraqi overseas ministry says one other. The dysfunction is additional embarrassing when you think about the Iraqi overseas minister is from the KDP, the identical half because the KRG prime minister.”

The KRG has but to challenge any official statements on the operation, and the interior division inside the regional authorities might need contributed to this radio silence, based on analysts.

“[The] KRG may be very divided and is unable to precise condemnation,” Aziz mentioned. “Erdogan is at all times utilizing Kurdish events to point out that Kurds are agreeing with [him]; it’s nicely deliberate, and the intention is to point out that the [KRG] authorities is supporting the operation.”

Assaults on Shia armed teams

The Turkish operation has come as Iraqi politics continues to face uncertain times, with a brand new authorities but to be shaped and negotiations between political factions ongoing, regardless of elections being held again in October 2021.

To make issues extra precarious, native Iraqi media retailers have that the Hashd al-Shaabi (PMF) armed group, a pro-Iranian predominantly Shia drive that has vital army affect in Iraq due to its position within the battle in opposition to ISIL (ISIS), and now additionally has an vital political bloc.

Because the group’s institution in 2014, Turkey has thought-about the PMF to be totally guided by Iran, based on Harry Istepanian, an analyst based mostly in Washington, and subsequently having no legitimacy in Sunni areas. An assault on the PMF can be thought-about a provocative motion that sends a message to Iraq’s political teams, whereas additionally exposing a threat of additional escalations.

“Turkey performed the assault on the PMF as a warning message to the Shia factions to stay exterior of Turkey’s political sport in Iraq,” Harry Istepanian instructed Al Jazeera. “The presence of Turkish troops in Bashiqa and different places is according to its blatant opposition to [PMF] presence in what are thought-about Sunni areas.”

Turkey has not formally commented on experiences of the assaults on the PMF, and Al Jazeera couldn’t independently confirm the experiences.

How the PMF will reply, if in any respect, will doubtless sway a few of the future course of Turkey’s army ambition in Iraq.

“It’s doable to see extra assaults on the PMF,” Istepanian mentioned. “Nevertheless, any PMF assault can be a brand new stage of the battle, which might enable to be in opposition to the Turkish intervention.”

For now, Iraq’s confused response to Turkey’s operation displays its personal confused state, and not using a authorities or a strong sense of objective. A extra concrete place on Turkey could solely be doable when that’s resolved.

“It’s troublesome to find out whereas within the present impasse of selecting a brand new authorities,” Istepanian mentioned. “The complete geopolitical panorama will depend on quite a few regional elements related to Turkey’s future relations with Iran and the south Caucasus, the Russian army invasion of Ukraine and Turkey’s inner politics and financial troubles.”

Orthodox Easter celebration marred by war and division in Ukraine | Russia-Ukraine war News

Kyiv, Ukraine – Ready for a priest to provide an Easter blessing at St Michael’s Monastery, a golden-domed cathedral with sky-blue partitions in central Kyiv, Olha Liforenko had some ideas about Russian President Vladimir Putin.

“After I take a look at Putin, I don’t see a human. I see nothing however lifeless meat,” the 75-year-old stated.

Going through drizzling rain and gusts of frigid wind, the red-haired Liforenko waited patiently with a pal on Saturday for a priest to bless the Easter eggs and selfmade candy truffles she had dropped at this place of worship forward of Orthodox Easter.

Their dialog on the church turned to the horrors of the Russian invasion, significantly shelling in Obolon, a northern district of Kyiv – and their sentiments echoed these of Ukraine’s Orthodox Church chief, Metropolitan Epiphanius.

“There may be nothing sacred for the Russian murderers,” Epiphanius stated in a web-posted assertion, condemning Putin for refusing to declare a three-day ceasefire over the Easter interval.

On Sunday – the day that Orthodox Christians rejoice Easter – the battle in Ukraine entered its third month.

Believers near the St. Michael's Monastery in Kyiv [Mansur Mirovalev/Al Jazeera]
Believers close to the St Michael’s Monastery in Kyiv [Mansur Mirovalev/Al Jazeera]

A spiritual divide

At 43 years outdated, Epiphanius is without doubt one of the youngest leaders of one of many world’s youngest church buildings – the Orthodox Church of Ukraine.

Kyiv’s centuries-old ecclesiastical subjugation to the Orthodox Patriarchy of Moscow was ended by the Patriarch of Constantinople, Bartholomew, when Epiphanius was elected in 2018 as primate of the impartial church of Ukraine.

However the emergence of a brand new church, impartial of the Moscow patriarchy, has additionally deepened the spiritual divide in Ukraine.

Hundreds of parishes in Ukraine nonetheless report to Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, primate of the Russian Orthodox Church. Kirill, an ally of Putin, has stated that the Russian invasion of Ukraine had “a metaphysical significance” for the preservation of Christian values.

Ukrainian intelligence beforehand summoned a few of the pro-Moscow clergymen for questioning, and their names and private data have been featured in Myrotvorets (or Peacemaker), a Ukrainian web site that has shut ties to legislation enforcement businesses and hackers and that publishes an online dossier of hundreds of pro-Moscow figures in Ukraine.

Father Hennady Shkil, a white-bearded Orthodox priest from the southern Ukrainian city of Hola Prystan, is featured in that file.

“I’m proud to be on that listing,” he advised Al Jazeera.

Russia’s battle on Ukraine has solely additional antagonised the divided clergy.

Father Andriy Pinchuk of the jap village of Voloshske collected tons of of signatures of clerics to petition the pentarchy – the collective title for the world’s 5 oldest church buildings in Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem – to put the patriarch in Moscow on trial.

Ukrainian clerics have additionally referred to as on their followers to avoid pro-Moscow Orthodox church buildings.

Father Roman Kinik, who serves at St Catherine’s Cathedral in Ukraine’s northern metropolis of Chernihiv, stated these worshipping at pro-Moscow church buildings would obtain a bloody blessing at Easter.

“Those that are going to those church buildings on Saturday may have their Easter truffles blessed with blood,” he advised Ukraine’s UNIAN information company on Friday.

A basket with Easter eggs and cakes [Mansur Mirovalev/Al Jazeera]
A basket with Easter eggs and truffles [Mansur Mirovalev/Al Jazeera]


For a lot of Ukrainians, Easter has been darkened by an incident that has made them marvel how a lot decrease Moscow will go, morally, in its battle.

On Saturday, Russian cruise missiles fired from a strategic Tu-95 bomber killed eight civilians within the Black Sea port of Odesa.

Amongst these killed have been a three-month-old youngster, Kira Glodan, her mom, and grandmother – who had arrived from Russia.

Kira’s father, Yuri Glodan, had gone out to purchase an Easter cake when the missiles struck. He fainted after studying concerning the destiny of his household, Ukrainian media reported.

The demise of three generations in a single household shocked Ukrainians  –  even those that have develop into accustomed to reviews of mass killings, torture and rapes within the Kyiv suburb of Bucha, in Borodianka, within the destroyed southern port of Mariupol, and the besieged jap metropolis of Kharkiv.

“Putin is a demon, a Devil incarnate,” Olha Kaluzhna, 43, a resident of Odesa, advised Al Jazeera.

“I cried and cried after listening to concerning the poor little lady.”

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy may barely comprise his feelings when speaking concerning the bombing of Odesa.

“The battle started when this child was a month outdated. Are you able to think about? What’s going on? Stinking lowlifes. What else are you able to name them? Simply lowlifes,” he advised a information convention on Saturday evening.

And but, Easter has introduced some peace and quiet to Ukrainians who exchanged Easter truffles and kisses – or, at the least, despatched their greetings by textual content messages with postcards, poems and congratulations connected.

“I want a cheerful Easter to those that rejoice!” President Zelenskyy’s spouse, Olena Zelenska, stated on Telegram.

“And the victory of fine and light-weight to everybody who awaits it and makes it come true,” she wrote, subsequent to an image of an angel hovering between a blue sky and a yellow wheat area – the colors of the Ukrainian flag.

‘Russian tradition on pause’

Although Kyiv has been free from the hazard of a Russian onslaught since early April, believers may solely watch the Easter evening service at St Michael’s Cathedral on-line.

The group gathered at St Michael’s for blessings on Saturday was many occasions smaller than standard, stated 75-year-old Liforenko, who waited for a tall, bearded, black-robed priest to sprinkle holy water on her Easter basket.


Olha Liforenko, center, a music professor from Kyiv, receives blessing near St. Michael's Monastery [Mansur Mirovalev/Al Jazeera]
Olha Liforenko, centre, a music professor from Kyiv, receives blessing close to St Michael’s Monastery [Mansur Mirovalev/Al Jazeera]

A conservatory professor and acclaimed pianist, Liforenko stated she has been coming to this church for greater than three many years – for the reason that twilight of the Soviet Union that gave method to Ukraine’s independence in 1991.

Within the Soviet period, Liforenko’s household spoke solely Ukrainian – a uncommon factor in Kyiv, the place at the least two-thirds of the inhabitants are nonetheless Russian-speaking. However as a music lover, she championed works by Russian composers – together with the excruciatingly troublesome piano compositions of Sergei Rachmaninoff.

However not anymore, she stated.

“We should put Russian tradition on pause for a very long time,” she advised Al Jazeera, pointing to scaffolding on the church to guard in opposition to Russian bombs.

“However we’ll win. We don’t hope for it; we consider in it,” she stated.