EU freezes belongings of at the very least 11 individuals, together with law enforcement officials and Iran’s data minister, over their roles within the crackdown in opposition to ongoing protests.
The European Union has imposed sanctions on Iran’s morality police and knowledge minister over their alleged roles within the safety crackdown in opposition to anti-government protests that erupted after the demise of a 22-year-old girl in authorities custody.
Two main morality police officers, Mohammad Rostami and Hajahmad Mirzaei, are amongst 11 individuals whose belongings had been frozen by the 27-nation bloc on Monday. They’re additionally banned from travelling in Europe.
The Iranian Legislation Enforcement Forces and a lot of native police chiefs had been additionally focused “for his or her position within the brutal repression of the protests”, mentioned a press release launched after EU international ministers endorsed the sanctions at a gathering in Luxembourg.
Info Minister Issa Zarepour was listed for his alleged accountability in an web shutdown after the protests began.
German Overseas Minister Annalena Baerbock mentioned the EU “can’t and won’t shut our eyes” to the crackdown in Iran. “Additionally it is clear that if this regime continues to pummel its inhabitants on this manner, there can be additional focused sanctions packages in opposition to these accountable,” she mentioned.
Within the assertion, the EU condemned “the widespread and disproportionate use of drive in opposition to peaceable protesters. That is unjustifiable and unacceptable. Individuals in Iran, as anyplace else, have the precise to peacefully protest, and this proper should be ensured in all circumstances”.
Iran mentioned there could be an “speedy” response to the sanctions.
The listing was drawn up earlier than a lethal fireplace at Tehran’s Evin jail, the place the federal government holds Iranian political prisoners, twin nationals and foreigners.
The EU has been alarmed on the Iranian authorities’s bloody crackdown on protests sparked by final month’s demise of Mahsa Amini, who was taken into custody after morality police accused her of failing to put on her Islamic headband appropriately.
The demonstrations have since morphed into anti-government road protests.
The EU international ministers accused the morality police and their Tehran and nationwide police chiefs of being liable for Amini’s demise.
“In line with dependable stories and witnesses, she was brutally overwhelmed and mistreated in custody, which led to her hospitalisation and to her demise on 16 September 2022,” they mentioned.
The Basij drive, a paramilitary group affiliated with the highly effective Revolutionary Guard, was listed for its “significantly harsh” crackdown on protesters, “ensuing within the deaths of a number of individuals”. It’s “straight liable for severe human rights violations in Iran”, the EU sanctions listing mentioned.
The US, the UK and Canada have already introduced their very own sanctions in opposition to Iran for human rights violations happening through the protests.
Tehran has responded by accusing the US of fomenting the protests.
Luxembourg Overseas Minister Jean Asselborn was sceptical that the sanctions would “harm” Iran.
However he mentioned: “This regime might have labored over the past 40 years, however it’s not working now. And that’s the reason the European Union has to take this primary step.”
The protests erupted as hopes are fading of restoring the 2015 Iran nuclear deal, which was torpedoed when then-US President Donald Trump withdraw from it in 2018.
Over the previous yr and half, the EU has been coordinating efforts, up to now unsuccessfully, to deliver the US and Iran again into full compliance with the settlement, which goals to curb Iran’s nuclear programme.
Greater than a dozen senior Indonesian authorities and army officers had been focused final yr with spy software program designed by an Israeli surveillance agency, in response to 9 individuals with data of the matter.
Six of the people advised the Reuters information company they had been focused themselves.
The targets included Chief Financial Minister Airlangga Hartarto, senior army personnel, two regional diplomats, and advisers in Indonesia’s defence and overseas affairs ministries, in response to the individuals.
Six of the Indonesian officers and advisers focused advised Reuters they acquired an electronic mail message from Apple Inc in November 2021 telling them that Apple believed officers had been being “focused by state-sponsored attackers”.
Apple has not disclosed the identities or variety of customers focused. The corporate declined to remark for this story.
Apple and safety researchers have mentioned the recipients of the warnings had been focused utilizing ForcedEntry, a sophisticated piece of software program that has been utilized by Israeli cyber surveillance vendor NSO Group to assist overseas spy companies remotely and invisibly take management of iPhones. One other Israeli cyber agency, QuaDream, has developed an almost similar hacking device, Reuters has reported.
Reuters was unable to find out who made or used the spyware and adware to focus on the Indonesian officers, whether or not the makes an attempt had been profitable, and, if that’s the case, what the hackers might need obtained consequently.
The try to focus on Indonesian officers, which has not beforehand been reported, is without doubt one of the greatest instances but seen of the software program getting used towards authorities, army and defence ministry personnel, in response to cybersecurity specialists.
Spokespeople for the Indonesian authorities, the Indonesian army, the Indonesian Defence Ministry and the Indonesian Cyber and Crypto Company (BSSN) didn’t reply to requests for feedback and emailed questions.
A spokesperson for the Overseas Affairs Ministry mentioned they had been unaware of the case and referred Reuters to BSSN.
Airlangga Hartarto, a high ally of Indonesian President Joko Widodo, didn’t reply to questions despatched to him by Reuters, nor did his representatives.
Using ForcedEntry, which exploits a flaw in iPhones by a brand new hacking approach that requires no person interactions, was made public by cybersecurity watchdog Citizen Lab in September 2021. Google safety researchers described it because the “most technically refined” hacking assault they’d ever seen, in an organization blogpost printed in December.
Apple patched the vulnerability in September final yr and in November began sending notification messages to what it known as a “small variety of customers that it found could have been focused”.
In response to Reuters questions, an NSO spokesperson denied the corporate’s software program was concerned within the focusing on of Indonesian officers, dismissing it as “contractually and technologically not possible,” with out specifying why. The corporate, which doesn’t disclose the id of its clients, says it sells its merchandise solely to “vetted and legit” authorities entities.
QuaDream didn’t reply to requests for remark.
Along with the six officers and advisers who advised Reuters they had been focused, a director at a state-owned Indonesian agency that gives weapons to the Indonesian military acquired the identical message from Apple, in response to two individuals with data of the matter. The individuals requested to not be recognized because of the sensitivity of the matter. The corporate director didn’t reply to requests for remark.
Inside weeks of Apple’s notification in November final yr, the US authorities added NSO to the Division of Commerce’s ‘entity record,’ which makes it tougher for US corporations to do enterprise with it, after figuring out that the agency’s phone-hacking know-how had been utilized by overseas governments to “maliciously goal” political dissidents all over the world.
Kolkata, India–Lucas didn’t make it, however his mates Alex and Xavier did. They’re slowly being nursed again to well being with a weight loss plan of watermelons, bananas, wild grass and contemporary water. Alex, Xavier and the deceased Lucas are kangaroos that have been discovered roaming close to woodlands in east India, 5,000 miles away from Australia, the land from which their species hails. Their case has left India dumbfounded.
Officers at North Bengal Safari Park, the place Alex and Xavier are being sorted, mentioned Lucas died from dehydration and malnutrition the day after he was rescued. The survivors, they confirmed this week, will transfer to a zoo in Kolkata when they’re match sufficient, and even perhaps dwelling in the future, providing a cheerful ending to a sorry story which started final month.
Forestry division officers within the higher reaches of the state of West Bengal have been alerted one evening in April to a pair of the marsupials bouncing alongside a freeway close to the Gajoldoba forest, on the principle path to the provincial hub city of Siliguri. Bemused drivers pulled up and took cellphone movies, in clips which have since gone viral, chattering away excitedly in Bengali and making an attempt to feed the kangaroos, as they waited for rangers to rescue, and identify, the hungry, confused animals.
On Friday, three kangaroo calves have been rescued from components of #WestBengal, and one other child kangaroo was discovered useless on the identical evening.
The rescued joeys have been rehabilitated in North Bengal Safari Park, whereas the investigation is ongoing.pic.twitter.com/rIimKfaxX5
Hari Krishnan, the divisional forest officer within the Baikunthapur jurisdiction, not removed from the Sikkim state border and the Kingdom of Bhutan, ultimately turned up along with his group and took Alex and Xavier into care. “The kangaroos have been along with the highway, in a really distressed state,” mentioned Krishnan. “We didn’t know what to do as we’d by no means seen one earlier than in actual life, not even on the zoo. We have been very cautious of dealing with them or traumatising them.”
The following morning, Lucas, and the stays of a child kangaroo, or a joey, have been discovered by one other ranger group close to a forest in Dabgram, 27 kilometres (17 miles) away. Three weeks earlier, two males from Hyderabad have been arrested making an attempt to smuggle a kangaroo into West Bengal’s Alipurduar district, after a late-night site visitors cease. 5 kangaroos – alive and useless – in two months, present in North Bengal, meant these have been no escapees from zoos, however that unlawful wildlife trafficking gangs had discovered a brand new commodity.
“We’re investigating this unimaginable case, and there may be a lot that’s complicated”, Vary Officer Sanjay Dutta, of the Belakoba district, advised Al Jazeera. “However one in every of our theories is that the animals have been being transported to Switzerland, for use in testing for the prescribed drugs and beauty trade. We are able to’t say any extra at this stage.”
He added, “We have now by no means seen a case involving kangaroos earlier than. It was like a miracle after we noticed them, like an impossibility, that these Australian creatures may very well be roaming in India. We couldn’t imagine our eyes. We don’t actually have a schedule for them,” referring to classifications of safety below India’s Wildlife Safety Act the place tigers, as an illustration, are schedule 1.
Dutta’s group was the one which discovered Lucas and the useless joey. “The kangaroos are all younger,” he mentioned. “And there’s no actual purpose for them to be in India until they’ve been introduced in by people and transport machines. These kangaroos didn’t hop from Australia to India.”
‘Kangaroos are a primary’
Whereas investigations proceed into this extraordinary crime, the sight of the distressed animals on social media and TV channels in India has unsurprisingly prompted outrage. However much less predictably, it has additionally shone a highlight on simply how pernicious the animal smuggling commerce in India has turn into.
The unlawful wildlife trade is value an estimated $20bn – $23bn worldwide, however nation-by-nation estimates are troublesome to return by, because of the intrinsically clandestine nature of such an enterprise. However two reviews since 2020, by IndiaSpend and the Wildlife Conservation Society present unique pet possession is quite common in India, and likewise that the unlawful wildlife commerce, typically, is flourishing. A authorities amnesty introduced in mid-2020 noticed greater than 32,000 Indians coming ahead to admit possession of unique or endangered pets, from macaws and star tortoises, to lemurs and gibbons.
“Kangaroos are a primary,” mentioned Samyukta Chemudupati, head of forensics on the Wildlife Conservation Belief (WCT), in Mumbai. “However we now have seen kookaburras, foxes, snakes of all varieties, spiders, massive cats and lots of different non-indigenous animals being smuggled to fulfill a hefty demand throughout India, and one of many principal causes is to maintain wild animals as pets.
“Each city and metropolis in India has a pet retailer or fixer who both sells unique creatures or can procure them someway. If you wish to order a cockatoo, an African gray parrot, a overseas snake, no matter – they are often yours for the proper value. It’s turn into like an over-the-counter drug.”
Whereas forestry officers might imagine the kangaroo case is because of a black marketplace for animals to experiment on, there are myriad explanation why the Indian unlawful animal commerce exists: unique pets, conventional drugs – particularly tiger components and pangolins destined for China and East Asian purchasers – meat, trophies, and even “black magic”.
“We frequently get notices from the police and forestry division a couple of specific downside,” mentioned Chemudupati. “As an illustration, round Diwali and different festivals, there’s a burgeoning commerce in unlawful owls, as a result of there’s this perception in some circles that sacrificing them will deliver wealth to your property.”
‘Identical mannequin as for medicine’
Wasim Akram, deputy director of particular tasks at Wildlife SOS, a conservation group based mostly in New Delhi, mentioned there are two kinds of trafficking – one is for animal components starting from tiger paws and ivory to inside organs of unique species, and the opposite is stay animals. These are smuggled for each home purchasers and for out of doors India, maybe for one of many many moist markets of Southeast Asia or China.
And it’s not simply the wealthy in search of outlawed animal merchandise akin to mongoose-hair brushes and shahtoosh shawls (a positive sort of wool constructed from the hair of the Tibetan antelope. “We get front-line tales a couple of tiger’s head being minimize off and located in a river”, mentioned WCT’s Chemudapati. “Or a leopard’s physique with its paws lacking, or a wild boar or chital (noticed deer) hunted in order that villagers can eat it for a wedding feast”.
In relation to battling the illicit commerce, the principle downside is that the authorities are at all times enjoying catch-up. “The smugglers, the fellows driving a truck or jeep, or pulling cages off a ship, are unlikely to know who the tip purchaser is,” Akram identified. “These networks are very deep, and costly. It’s a multimillion-dollar trade that’s working underground, so you’ll be able to think about the degrees of secrecy. They don’t use regular communications, they use the darknet, coded phrases and nobody actually is aware of who’s working for whom.”
The chain of middlemen, together with corrupt officers, is “extremely lengthy”, Akram advised Al Jazeera. “Some man on the port, some man on the truck cease, another man in customs … and perhaps solely one in every of them really is aware of who the shopper is. It’s the identical mannequin as for medicine and weapons, it’s simply getting used for wild animals.”
These parallels between varied nefarious enterprises are particularly relevant to the kangaroo case. Lucas, Alex and Xavier have been simply the most recent victims of a contemporary smuggling community that has North Bengal as a significant cog.
“From Siliguri, you’re subsequent to Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Assam”, mentioned Dutta, including, “That’s the reason they use it as such an everyday route for animals, as you’ll be able to go in lots of instructions. We have now many companies working in opposition to such trafficking on this space, gathering intelligence, understanding the gangs and making an attempt to find potential purchasers. It’s a focus. It’s huge enterprise right here.”
Additionally it is used for luxurious uncooked supplies, like Burmese teak timber, mentioned Dutta, as as soon as the infrastructure is in place – just like the narcos’ tunnels between Mexico and USA or the skiff shallows off Caribbean islands utilized by drug runners – you’ll be able to site visitors something. “If you happen to can match just a few tonnes of wooden right into a lorry coming from Burma into [the northeast states] Mizoram, Assam then West Bengal, you’ll be able to take just a few crates of snakes and birds and even monkeys again”, he mentioned.
From a authorized standpoint, the state of affairs is extraordinarily murky, regardless of India being a signatory to the Conference on Worldwide Commerce in Endangered Species (CITES) and enacting its personal wildlife safety act within the Seventies.
India nonetheless doesn’t have a correctly written regulation that permits officers to take motion as soon as the animal enters nationwide boundaries. “So in the event that they catch them at a customs port they will take motion, however as soon as it’s in India itself there may be little they will formally do”, Chemudapati mentioned.
Nonetheless, a invoice within the Delhi parliament trying to amend wildlife legal guidelines, tabled for later this yr, would enable authorities to prosecute suspects for the particular crime of smuggling protected or unique animals.
That will be a giant leap ahead, says Chemudupati, as a result of present ways akin to amnesties skew in direction of the causally complicit purchasers, moderately than violent, prison smugglers.
She continued: “Most of the 32,000 who got here ahead [in the amnesty] have been more likely to be center class, educated sorts who might remorse their selections or have made errors or purchased pets on a whim, and really care concerning the welfare of their animals. However the smugglers are watching to see what occurs subsequent.”
Ex-army officers inform particular tribunal they participated in so-called ‘false constructive’ killings of over 100 civilians.
Ten former members of the Colombian army have publicly acknowledged their position within the 2007 and 2008 killings of greater than 100 civilians, who had been falsely portrayed as armed group members killed in fight with the military.
The admissions had been made on Tuesday throughout an historic public listening to of the Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP) tribunal within the Norte de Santander division close to Colombia’s border with Venezuela, the place the killings happened.
The tribunal was created below a 2016 peace deal between the Colombian authorities and the now-demobilised Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) rebels.
It’s meant to strive former combatants, doling out different punishments in change for full disclosure of incidents that happened throughout Colombia’s decades-long, inside armed battle.
On Tuesday, a former army basic, 4 colonels, 5 different military officers and one civilian stated they participated within the kidnapping of 120 youth from the city of Ocana and neighbouring communities to kill and later current them as members of left-wing guerilla and different armed teams that operated within the space.
“I recognise and settle for my accountability as a co-perpetrator of those struggle crimes,” stated Nestor Gutierrez, who was the corporal of the fifteenth cell brigade when the killings occurred.
“We killed harmless individuals, peasants. I need to emphasise this: these we killed had been easy peasants,” he stated, including that strain from higher-ups and “calls for for outcomes” performed a task in what occurred.
The so-called “false positives” scandal has rocked Colombia, because the family members of the victims for many years have demanded justice and accountability – and insisted that their kinfolk weren’t concerned with armed teams.
The JEP final 12 months stated the Colombian army carried out more than 6,400 of those extrajudicial killings between 2002 and 2008, when President Alvaro Uribe was in energy. However rights teams and kinfolk have stated the true quantity could be much higher.
Dozens of individuals – together with round 50 kinfolk of the victims – attended Tuesday’s JEP listening to in Ocana, the newest alternative for them to attempt to get some closure.
Choose Catalina Diaz described it as a “fact and accountability” listening to, saying the previous army officers had been anticipated to “clearly clarify themselves, reply questions and most significantly, take direct accountability in entrance of the victims and the nation”.
“After years of silence and concern, the time for fact has lastly arrived, to place an finish to many years of impunity,” the JEP stated in a video shared earlier than the ex-military officers’ statements.
Al Jazeera’s Alessandro Rampietti, reporting from the capital Bogota, stated “actually highly effective” testimonials had been delivered, providing kinfolk of the victims “the likelihood to realize some fact of what occurred”.
“The scenario in [the region] is only one of many who the court docket has been investigating. They’ve been in a position to decide that greater than 6,400 individuals have been killed this fashion by the army,” Rampietti stated.
“Now the Colombian army has insisted that there wasn’t a scientific plan to kill harmless individuals”, he added, however many former military officers which have spoken to the tribunal stated they had been below strain from the federal government on the time “to point out outcomes”.
Guatemala Metropolis, Guatemala – Prime United States officers are in Panama for a summit on migration within the Americas, the place migrant rights teams say US policies exacerbate the risks confronted by migrants and asylum seekers heading north.
The US secretaries of state and homeland safety are becoming a member of their counterparts from 20 different international locations within the western hemisphere for a ministerial conference on migration on Tuesday and Wednesday in Panama Metropolis.
“The US delegation will deepen our ongoing efforts to enhance bilateral and regional cooperation on irregular migration and compelled displacement, and lay the groundwork for a profitable Summit of the Americas in June,” the State Division said on Tuesday.
Nevertheless, migrant rights advocates contend that safety and deterrence policies pushed by the US and different vacation spot international locations worsen the dangers migrants and asylum seekers face in transit by way of the area.
“The US authorities has been so centered on enforcement,” mentioned Kennji Kizuka, affiliate director for refugee safety analysis and evaluation at Human Rights First, a US non-profit group. “That has compelled many asylum seekers to take extra harmful routes,” he advised Al Jazeera.
Excessive-level dialogue on the convention this week will pursue a “holistic response to the challenges irregular migration generates all through our continent”, Panama’s Ministry of Overseas Affairs mentioned in an announcement on Sunday.
Multilateral banks, non-governmental organisations and worldwide establishments – together with the United Nations refugee company (UNHCR) – are additionally taking part within the ministerial convention.
A couple of-fifth of the estimated 82.4 million folks forcibly displaced on the planet are within the Americas, mentioned William Spindler, UNHCR’s spokesman for Latin America and the Caribbean.
“The simplest and sustainable technique to realize the stabilisation of populations on the transfer is to put money into regularisation and integration processes,” Spindler advised Al Jazeera by way of e-mail.
“An instance is the granting by Colombia of a temporary protection status for a period of 10 years to all Venezuelans residing in its territory,” he mentioned.
UNHCR representatives attending the ministerial convention will even spotlight the significance of regional coordination mechanisms and engagement with worldwide and personal sector actors to handle the basis causes of displacement.
“At a time when the eye of the world is concentrated on the crisis in Ukraine, it is very important keep in mind that there are different conditions that additionally deserve and want the political dedication and assets of the worldwide group,” mentioned Spindler.
Panama made repeated requires worldwide assist final yr to bolster humanitarian help efforts in the Darien region, the place migrants and asylum seekers from dozens of nations enter from Colombia and stroll for days by way of the jungle.
River crossings, publicity and armed teams all pose severe risks to folks transiting the world. At the least 51 folks have been reported lacking or lifeless final yr, in line with UNHCR.
The overwhelming majority of the greater than 133,000 migrants who crossed by way of the Darien area in 2021 have been of Haitian origin or descent, in line with Panamanian authorities information. However the sample has since shifted.
Venezuela is now the highest nationality of migrants transiting the Darien. Of the 13,425 migrants and asylum seekers recorded within the area over the primary three months of this yr, 4,257 have been Venezuelans, already far surpassing that nation’s whole in 2021.
Since taking workplace in January final yr, US President Joe Biden’s administration has centered on what it calls addressing “the root causes” of migration from Central America, as kids and households have been arriving on the nation’s southern border with Mexico in giant numbers.
The stress on Mexico to clamp down on migrants and asylum seekers transiting north possible performed a task within the enhance within the Darien area, in line with Kizuka. “Mexico was pushed by the USA to impose a visa restriction on Venezuelans,” he mentioned. “The US has pushed extra folks by way of Panama, by way of the Darien Hole.”
Mexico instated a visa requirement for Venezuelans in January, following suspensions late final yr of visa exemptions for nationals of Ecuador and Brazil. As of this month, Colombians should preregister on-line to enter Mexico.
US southern border
The US additionally instantly locations migrants and asylum seekers in hurt’s manner by proscribing entry to asylum by way of insurance policies at its southern border, in line with rights teams. The way forward for a few of these insurance policies is unsure.
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the administrations of Donald Trump and now Joe Biden have summarily carried out more than 1.7 million expulsions on the nation’s southern border on fiercely contested public well being grounds, utilizing what is called “Title 42”.
Human Rights First has discovered almost 10,000 instances of kidnapping, sexual assault, torture and violence in opposition to folks in Mexico blocked or expelled by the US resulting from using Title 42 by the Biden administration. Folks expelled to different international locations usually face related dangers.
Cinthia, an asylum seeker from Honduras, deliberate to request safety within the US however was expelled underneath Title 42 earlier than she obtained the possibility, after making it throughout the border. She mentioned she faces demise threats in her house nation from armed extortionists.
“All of the governments speak about supporting migrants however they do the other,” she advised Al Jazeera, requesting her final identify not be used for safety causes.
Using Title 42 is presently set to end on Might 23, however court docket action, Congress or the administration itself may change that course. “There are indicators of pressure inside the Democratic Get together round what to do with Title 42,” mentioned Kizuka.
“That is considered as a political difficulty,” he mentioned. “The administration, it looks like, is making coverage choices based mostly on election prospects for the midterms.”
Air assaults by Pakistan on jap Afghan provinces of Khost and Kunar killed primarily girls and kids, officers say.
The demise toll from Pakistan’s military air raids on targets within the jap Afghanistan provinces of Khost and Kunar on Saturday has risen to at the least 47, officers stated.
“Forty-one civilians, primarily girls and kids, have been killed and 22 others have been wounded in air strikes by Pakistani forces close to the Durand Line in Khost province,” Shabir Ahmad Osmani, director of knowledge and tradition in Khost, informed AFP on Sunday.
Two different officers confirmed the demise toll in Khost, whereas an Afghan official stated on Saturday that six individuals have been killed in Kunar province.
Afghanistan’s largest information channel, TOLO Information, confirmed photos of youngsters’s our bodies it stated have been killed within the air assault.
The identical channel confirmed protests by a whole bunch of residents in Khost condemning Pakistan and shouting anti-Pakistan slogans.
The Pakistani navy has not commented on the assaults, however on Sunday the overseas ministry in Islamabad urged the Taliban authorities in Kabul to take “stern actions” towards armed fighters launching assaults towards Pakistan from Afghan soil.
“Terrorists are utilizing Afghan soil with impunity to hold out actions inside Pakistan,” the assertion, which was unusually harsh in its language, stated.
Border tensions between Pakistan and Afghanistan have risen because the Taliban seized energy final yr, with Islamabad claiming armed teams are finishing up common assaults from Afghan soil.
For the reason that Taliban takeover, Islamabad has led the best way in urgent the world to interact with the religiously pushed Afghan authorities.
It’s not clear, nevertheless, whether or not Pakistan’s new Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif might be as supportive of the Afghan Taliban as was his predecessor, Imran Khan, a cricket star turned conservative Islamist chief, who was faraway from energy final weekend in a politically tumultuous no-confidence vote.
The Taliban deny harbouring Pakistani armed fighters, however are additionally infuriated by a fence Islamabad is erecting alongside the 2 international locations’ 2,700km (1,680-mile) shared border.